Genuine Taber Abrading Wheels
An essential component of conducting “Taber wear tests” is the type of abrasive wheel that is used. Taber offers standardized grades of Genuine Taber abrasive wheels, engineered for a variety of specific applications. The wheels are a proprietary formulation developed and designed by Taber Industries so the binder material breaks down during use, exposing and creating a new abrading surface. The minimum usable diameter of Taber abrading wheels is 44.4 mm, which corresponds with the wheel label.
Abrading wheels for the Taber Abraser (Abrader) can be classified as:
Calibrase® – A resilient wheel composed of resilient binder and aluminum oxide or silicon carbide abrasive particles. Frequently used to evaluate rigid specimens.
Calibrade® – A non-resilient wheel composed of a vitrified (clay) binder and silicon carbide or aluminum oxide abrasive particles. Frequently used to evaluate flexible specimens.
Specialty – Used for special applications.
For both Calibrase and Calibrade wheels, different grades are furnished to meet varying requirements of abrasive action. The composition of Genuine Taber abrading wheels has been carefully chosen to reproduce normal service wear. The quality and uniformity of these wheels is maintained by continuous inspection sampling and tightly controlled manufacturing processes.
Wheels are sold in pairs, and shipped in tight-lidded containers to prevent damage. Each wheel is labeled “LEFT HAND (or RIGHT HAND)” to assure that the mounting position will be duplicated after the wheels have been removed and later re-installed. For Calibrase and Calibrade wheels, the label is also used to indicate the minimum diameter of the wheels (1.75 inch or 44.45 mm OD). When the wheel is worn to the label, it must be replaced.
Depending on the abradant type and test specimen, the wheel surface may change (i.e. become clogged) due to the transfer of material from the test specimen to the abrading wheel, and must be cleaned at frequent intervals. Click here for information on Refacing Options. As the abrasive coefficient of the wheels can also be altered by oil and other contaminants, handle only the sides of the wheels.
How long a set of Genuine Taber Wheels will last is dependent on the load, surface texture and frictional characteristics of the material being tested and frequency of refacing.
Most published test methods provide sufficient details on which abrasive wheels to use. If you are following a particular standard, please refer to it for the appropriate wheel. If your application is not covered by an established procedure, deciding which abrading wheel is best determined with preliminary testing on the actual material. The ideal selection criterion is to reproduce, as nearly possible, the wear which the material will be subjected to in actual use. It is important to keep in mind that wear is a complex phenomenon that may not be exactly replicated through an accelerated abrasion test, and the abrasive wheels represent a limited subset of actual contact conditions that material surfaces will be subjected to while in service. Click on the below link(s) to determine what test method may be best suited for your material / product:
CS-8 Calibrase – A resilient wheel that offers a very mild abrading action, designed to operate under loads of 250 or 500 grams. Reface with the S-11 refacing disc.
CS-10F Calibrase – A resilient wheel that offers a mild abrading action, designed to operate under loads of 250 or 500 grams. The CS-10F is typically used to test materials such as safety glazing materials and transparent plastics, and should be refaced with the ST-11 refacing stone.
CS-10 Calibrase – This resilient wheel offers a mild – medium abrading action like that of normal handling, cleaning, and polishing. This popular wheel has been used to evaluate a variety of materials including organic coatings, plastics, textiles, leather and paper products. Reface with the S-11 refacing disc.
CS-10P Calibrase – The abrasion rate is the same as the CS-10, but this wheel has been engineered so the wheel surface does not load when testing paper products. Intended for tests of short duration (e.g. 100 cycles), with refacing after every tenth test.
CS-10W Calibrase – This wheel is the same as the CS-10 but white, to eliminate any color transfer from the wheel to the specimen.
CS-17 Calibrase – Compared to the CS-10 wheel, the CS-17 produces a harsher abrasion. Normally operated using loads of 500 or 1000 grams, this wheel is useful for testing materials such as anodized aluminum, powder coatings, ceramics, plastics and enamels. Reface with the S-11 refacing disc.
WARNING: Because of possible deterioration, Calibrase wheels should NOT be used after the expiration date printed on the wheel.
H-10 Calibrade – A non-resilient, vitrified wheel designed to evaluate steel and ferrous alloys for resistance to abrasion. It has also been used to test the effect of hardening and tempering treatment on steel and other ferrous materials.
H-18 Calibrade – This commonly used non-resilient wheel provides a medium coarse abrasive action. It is most often used to evaluate resilient materials such as rubber (non-tacky), certain woven textile fabrics, coated fabrics, and flexible plastic sheets.
H-22 Calibrade – The H-22 wheel produces a coarse abrasion. It has been used to test rubber, linoleum, leather, deep pile fabrics (such as automobile floor coverings) and concrete.
H-38 Calibrade – A non-resilient, vitrified abrading wheel comprised of fine abrasive particles. Designed to operate with 250 or 500 gram loads, the principal use of this wheel is to test woven and non-woven fabrics. Must be refaced using the Taber Wheel Refacer and multi-point diamond tool.
NOTE: Calibrade wheels do not have an expiration period.
Specialty Wheels / Abradants
Custom Formulations – To inquire about custom wheel formulations, please contact Taber Industries.
CS-0 Rubber (same as S-32) – A resilient wheel containing no abrasive particles. Intended for use when a very mild abrasive action is required, or for wet tests such as determining the relative abrasion of dental pastes, cleaning powders, or similar compounds. Adhesive sandpaper strips can be adhered to the periphery of the CS-0 wheel to evaluate the abrasion resistance of high-pressure decorative laminates and other products. CS-0 wheels have an expiration and should not be used after the date printed on the label.
CS-5 Felt – This abrading wheel is manufactured from a densely compacted wool felt. Designed to be tested with 250 or 500-gram loads, its principal use is in testing textile fabrics when the service wear requires one fibrous material to rub against another.
S-35 Tungsten Carbide – Manufactured out of tungsten carbide, the periphery of the S-35 consists of sharp helical teeth (1 mm pitch x 45° spiral pitch angle). The teeth combine both a cutting and tearing action, which provides a very severe abrasion. Intended for use only on resilient materials such as rubber, linoleum, and leather. S-35 wheels may be cleaned using a soft brass bristle brush.
S-39 Leather – This wheel is used in conjunction with the Grit Feeder to conduct three-body abrasion tests, and includes a leather strip that has been adhered to the exterior of a brass hub.
Aluminum Wheel – A solid aluminum wheel that can be used by itself or to apply an abrasive strip.
S-33 Sandpaper Strip – A closed coat sandpaper that is cut to 12.7 x 160mm strips and includes a pressure sensitive adhesive to attach the strip to the periphery of CS-0 (S-32) resilient wheels. The S-33 consists of an extra fine aluminum oxide grit, graded as 360 FEPA which has an average particle size that is approximately 40.5µm (0.00159 inches). The paper is an “A” weight which satisfies the paper grammage requirement of 70 – 100 g/m². To maintain the rate of abrasion, the sandpaper strips must be changed after a defined number of test cycles (typically 200 or 500). Applications include vitreous and porcelain enamels, paints, metallic coatings, and furniture surfaces.
S-42 Sandpaper Strip – An open coat sandpaper that is cut to 12.7 x 160 mm strips and includes a pressure sensitive adhesive to attach the strip to the periphery of CS-0 (S-32) resilient wheels. The S-42 consists of a very fine aluminum oxide grit, graded as 180 ANSI-CAMI which has an average particle size that is approximately 78µm (0.00304 inches). The paper is an “A” weight which satisfies the paper grammage requirement of 70 – 100 g/m². To maintain the rate of abrasion, the sandpaper strips must be changed after a defined number of test cycles (typically 200 or 500). Applications include high pressure decorative laminates, wood flooring, plastics, furniture surfaces, paints and varnishes.
The abradant supplied with the Taber® Linear Abraser and Reciprocating Abraser is referred to as a Wearaser®. Comprised of silicon carbide or aluminum oxide abrasive particles embedded in a resilient or vitrified (clay) binder, the Wearasers are designed so the binder material breaks down during use – thus exposing and creating a new abrading surface.
Utilizing a proprietary formulation developed by Taber Industries, two general types of Wearasers are offered – Calibrase® (resilient identified by “CS” reference) and Calibrade® (non-resilient identified by “H” reference). With standardized grades to meet varying requirements of abrasive action, many different types of material surfaces may be evaluated. The quality and uniformity of the Wearasers is maintained by continuous inspection sampling and tightly controlled manufacturing processes.
The standard Wearaser has a diameter of 1/4″ and is the size and shape of a pencil eraser. This is secured in place with the Wearaser collet with approximately 0.100″ exposed for testing. Two other abradant configurations are also offered. The Jumbo Wearaser has a 1/2″ diameter (requires the Jumbo Wearaser collet assembly) and the Weardisc™ is a 3/4″ diameter by 3/16″ thick (requires the Universal Attachment). Due to the larger contact area, both the use of the Jumbo Wearaser and Weardisc should be limited to flat specimens or samples that have little to no change in its shape / contour. Taber recommends applying the Weardisc to the Universal Attachment with pressure sensitive adhesive.
How long the abradant will last is dependent on the load, surface texture and frictional characteristics of the material being tested and frequency of refacing.
Calibrase Wearasers & Weardiscs
CS-8 Calibrase – Resilient Wearaser that produces extremely mild abrading action, designed to operate under light loads.
CS-10 Calibrase – Resilient Wearaser that produces mild – medium abrading action.
CS-10F Calibrase – Resilient Wearaser that produces mild abrading action, designed to operate under light loads.
CS-17 Calibrase – Resilient Wearaser that produces medium-coarse abrasive action.
CS-19 Calibrase – Resilient Wearaser that produces coarse abrasive action.
Prior to testing, Calibrase Wearasers should always be refaced with the S-14 Refacing Strips to ensure the surface is refreshed. Depending on the material being evaluated, the Wearaser surface may change (i.e. become clogged) due to the transfer of material from the test specimen to the abradant. Should this occur, the Wearaser should be refaced periodically during testing.
WARNING: Because of possible deterioration, Calibrase Wearasers should NOT be used after the expiration date printed on the container.
Calibrade Wearasers & Weardiscs
H-10 Calibrade – A non-resilient, vitrified Wearaser that provides medium abrasive action.
H-18 Calibrade – A non-resilient, vitrified Wearaser that provides a medium – coarse abrasive action.
H-22 Calibrade – A non-resilient, vitrified Wearaser produces a coarse abrasion.
H-38 Calibrade – A non-resilient, vitrified abrading wheel that provides a mild abrasion. Comprised of very fine abrasive particles, similar to a polishing stone.
Prior to testing, Calibrade Wearasers should be refaced with the Diamond Coating applied to the Wearaser Depth Gage / Sharpener. To prevent sharp edges, utilize this tool to chamfer the edge of the Wearaser.
NOTE: Calibrade Wearasers do not have an expiration period.
CS-2 Calibrase – Resilient Wearaser that has no abrasive material.
CS-5 Calibrase – Resilient Wearaser that is comprised of densely compacted felt. May be used for dry or wet rub tests. Only available as 1/2″ Jumbo.
CS-7 Calibrase – Similar to CS-5 but slightly harder for increased abrasion. Only available as 1/2″ Jumbo.
H1 Felt – Resilient Wearaser that is comprised of densely compacted felt according to DIN 61200. Only available as 1/4″ diameter.
Eraser – According to MIL 12397. Resilient Wearaser that produces very mild abrading action, designed to operate under light loads.
Standardized textiles are commonly employed to conduct rubbing / abrasion tests. Perhaps the most popular is the standard Crocking Cloth which was originally used to determine the color fastness of textiles to dry/wet rubbing. This square cloth is typically wrapped around a 16mm diameter “finger” and held in place with a wire spring clip. Testing consists of rubbing it back and forth over the specimen surface. Other textile abradants include crocking felt, #10 cotton duck, 14 oz. blue cotton denim, and a variety of other materials. Taber’s Crockmeter Kit or Crock Block Finger are recommended when utilizing textile abradants with the Reciprocating or Linear Abraser.
Steel wool is comprised of very fine, flexible steel filaments that are randomly assembled in a small pad. Available in different grades, the finer grades of steel wool (such as 0, 00, 000 or 0000) are regularly used to conduct abrasion testing by companies interested in evaluating their product’s resistance to marring and abrasion. Taber’s 10mm or 20mm Square Finger Attachment incorporates a compressible neoprene rubber pad to help secure the steel wool in place during testing. Another option is the Steel Wool Holder in which a gently rolled section of steel wool is inserted into the opening until approximately 1 cm is exposed.
Similar to steel wool, a nylon scouring pad (e.g. 3M’s Scotchbrite®) can also be used to generate surface damage. Manufactured from flexible, non-woven fibers this product has been utilized to produce micro-scratching or marring. Scotchbrite pads are available in different grades of abrasiveness, and the recommended attachment is Taber’s Abrasive Pad Kit.
IMPORTANT: It should be noted that steel wool and scouring pads inherently have variation and were not intended to be a tightly controlled abrasive product.
Sandpaper and other coated abrasives are also used for conducting abrasion tests. The selection of which grade of sandpaper to use depends on the material. A fine sandpaper typically will create very light scratches on the specimen surface whereas a coarse sandpaper may result in heavier gouges and increased material removal.
NOTE: Abrasion tests are all subject to variation due to changes in the abradant during the test. As a result, the abradant should be monitored and / or changed at frequent intervals. With disposable abradants such as those mentioned above, the abradant is used only once or changed after limited use.
IMPORTANT NOTICE: For results that you can trust, always use Genuine Taber Products. All Genuine Taber Abrading Wheels and Wearasers include a security label on the packaging to identify them as Genuine Taber.
Other Test Accessories
Optional test plates are available for use with the Taber® Abraser (Abrader) and provide a convenient substrate for coatings and other materials. Test panels should be sprayed, drawn down or control-dipped to achieve a uniform coating.
Steel (S-16) – Uniformly blanked from 20-gage auto body sheet steel and dull finished for good adhesion of the coating to the metal. 100 mm square with rounded corners and a 6.35 mm center hole.
Wood (S-17) – Manufactured from grade A1, 6.35 mm (0.25 inch) birch plywood which has been sanded on both sides. 100 mm square with a 6.35 mm center hole.
Aluminum (S-18) – Produced out of #19 gauge 5052 aluminum. 100 mm square with rounded corners and a 6.35 mm center hole.
Glass (S-31) – Quality plate glass, approximately 3.15 mm thick. 100 mm square with a 6.35 mm center hole.
NOTE: When preparing your own test panels, ensure the sides are flat and parallel. A simple means to check for flatness is to place a straight edge across the test panel surface, and verify there is no gap. Use a file to remove any burrs from the center hole and edges.
Two standardization plates are offered and used to determine the abrasion characteristics of specific Taber abradants. These include:
Zinc (S-34) – Rolled zinc sheet, having a thickness of approximately 0.8 mm. Used to verify the abrasion rate of sandpaper strips such as S-42. Note, the S-34 zinc plate should not be used for more than 10 calibrations per side. 100 mm square with a 6.35 mm center hole.
Plexiglas (S-38) – Cell-cast acrylic used to evaluate the abrasion characteristics of grit used with the Taber Grit Feeder Attachment. 100 mm square with a 6.35 mm center hole and protective sheet applied to both sides.